Psychological readiness of the child to school and the methods of its diagnostics

By Admin | Children
12 March 2016

level of readiness for school kid made up of several equally important components: physical readiness, social, psychological.The latter, in turn, is divided further into several components (personal, intellectual and volitional).About them, as the most important, and will be discussed.

content of the article:

  • What is the psychological readiness of the child to school
  • What should alert parents?
  • How to check the child's psychological readiness for school
  • Where to go in case of problems

What is the psychological readiness of the child to school - a portrait of the ideal student

This component is psychological readiness for school is a very multifaceted factor, implying the presence ofa child's readiness for new knowledge, as well as behavioral, domestic and other skills.Investigated ...

intellectual readiness. It consists of the following components:

  • Curiosity.
  • already existing stock of skills / knowledge.
  • good memory.
  • Big outlook.
  • developed imagination.
  • logical and creative thinking.
  • Understanding the key laws.
  • sensory development and fine motor skills.
  • language skills sufficient for training.

child

Little preschooler should ...

  • know - where he lives (the address), name of parents, and details about their work.
  • be able to talk about what the composition of his family, a way of life and its prospect.
  • able to reason and draw conclusions.
  • have information about the seasons (months, hours, weeks, their sequence), about the world (flora and fauna in the areas inhabited by the child, the most common types).
  • navigate in time / space.
  • be able to organize and summarize the information (such as apples, pears and oranges - it's fruit, socks, shirts and coats - clothes).

emotional readiness.

This criterion of loyalty involves learning and understanding that will have to perform those tasks for which the soul does not lie. That is ...

  • Adherence (day of school, food).
  • ability to perceive criticism, drawing conclusions based on the results of learning (not always positive), and look for opportunities to correct errors.
  • ability to set a goal and achieve it, despite the obstacles.

personal readiness.

One of the biggest challenges for the kid in school - social adaptation.That is, a willingness to meet new kids and teachers, to overcome the difficulties in the relationship and so forth. Your child should be able to ...

  • work in a team.
  • communicate with children and adults, different in nature.
  • Obey senior "rank" (teachers, tutors).
  • defend their opinion (when communicating with peers).
  • seek compromises in controversial situations.

What should alert parents?

level of development of the baby is supposed to match "zone of proximal development" children of the training program (cooperation with older child should give some results).At low levels of the "zone" with respect to that which is necessary for the development of the curriculum, the kid recognize psychologically unprepared for learning (it just will not be able to learn the material).The percentage of children who are not ready to learn, to date, very large - more than 30% in seven years of aborted children have at least one component of psychological readiness. How do you know that the baby is not ready for school?

  • As a manifestation of his childlike.
  • not know how to listen - interrupts.
  • Meets without raising hands, along with the other children.
  • violate general discipline.
  • not able to sit for 45 minutes in one place, listening to adult.
  • has inflated self-esteem, and is not able to perceive the comments / criticism.
  • not interested in what is happening in the classroom and are not able to hear the teacher, until he will appeal directly to the child.

child draws

worth noting that the motivation immaturity (lack of desire to learn) causes significant gaps in knowledge with all its consequences.

Signs Intellectual unwillingness to learn:

  • verbalism: a very high level of development of speech, a good memory, a large vocabulary ("geeks"), but the failure to cooperate with children and adults, the lack of inclusion in the general practical activities.Result: the inability to work on a template / sample, the ratio of jobs and the inability of their actions, one-sided development of thinking.
  • Fear, anxiety.Or the fear of making a mistake, make a bad action, which again lead to irritation adults.Progressive anxiety leads to failure of fixation of the complex to lower self-esteem.In this case, it all depends on the parents and the adequacy of their claims to the child, as well as teachers.
  • pointedly.This feature involves high needs baby in the limelight and success.The key problem - shortage of praise.These children need to look for opportunities for self-realization (without edification).
  • Escape from reality.This variant is observed in combination of anxiety and demonstrative.That is, the higher the need for everyone's attention to the inability to express it, to realize because of the fear.

How to test the psychological readiness of the child to school - the best techniques and tests

Define - Is the child to school - you can use certain techniques (fortunately, no shortage of them), both independently at home and on thereceiving specialist.Of course, school readiness - is not only the ability to combine, subtract, read and write.All important components of readiness to adapt to the new conditions.

So, the most popular methods and tests - determines the level of development of the baby.

Test Kern-Jirásek.

  • Check: visual perception of the child, the level of development of motor skills, sensorimotor coordination.
  • Task №1.Drawing the figure from memory (men).
  • Task №2.Srisovyvanie written letters.
  • Task №3.Srisovyvanie group of points.
  • Evaluation of results (5-point scale): the development of high - 3-6 points, 7-11 points - average 12-15 points - below the normal value.

Method Pattern LITsehanskoy.

  • Check: Maturity skills consciously subordinating the requirements of their actions, the ability to listen to an adult.
  • essence of the method.In figure 3 rows arranged triangles at the top, bottom squares, circles - in the middle.The task - to draw a pattern, closely linking the squares with triangles by following the procedure (as per instructions) specified by the teacher.
  • rank.Correct - with corresponding compounds dictation teacher.During breaks lines, passes, extra connections - minus points.

Graphic dictation DBElkonin.

  • Check: Maturity skills consciously subordinating the requirements of their actions, the ability to listen to the teacher, the ability to focus on the specimen.
  • essence of the method: on a sheet in a cage put 3 points from which to begin playback of the pattern according to the instructions of the teacher.The line can not be interrupted.Another pattern child draws yourself.
  • result.Precision drawing dictation - the ability to listen without being distracted by stimuli.Accuracy of self-drawing - the degree of independence of the baby.

willingness to learn

Drawing on the points ALWenger.

  • Check: the level of orientation on a particular system requirements, the implementation of the task with simultaneous orientation of the specimen and listening.
  • essence of the method: playing pieces of sample lines by connecting the dots for a given rule.
  • task: exact reproduction of the sample without breaking the rules.
  • evaluation.Evaluate the test using the total score for the 6 tasks, which reduces the quality of the job, respectively.

Methodology NIGutkina.

  • Check: psychological readiness of the child and its main components.
  • essence of the method: 4 of the program to assess several areas of crumbs - arbitrary, speech, intellectual development, as well as motivational-need.
  • Scope motivational-need.Here, the method of determining the dominant motifs and conversation to identify the internal position of the future student.In the first case, the child was invited into the room with toys, where the teacher invites him to listen to an interesting tale (new).The most interesting moment of the tale is interrupted and offer your child a choice - to listen or play a fairy tale.Accordingly, a child with cognitive interest chooses a fairy tale, but with the game - toy / game.
  • intellectual sphere.She checked with the help of techniques "Boots" (in the picture, to define logical thinking) and "The sequence of events."In the second method also used the image for which you want to restore the sequence of actions and to make a short story.Sound
  • hide.An adult with a child define a sound that they will seek (s, w, a, b).Then the teacher calls the word, and the baby responds - whether there is a desired sound in the word.
  • House.The child must srisovat house, some parts of which are made up of parts of capital letters.The result will depend on the ability of the kid to copy a sample of care, fine motor skills.
  • Yes and no.On the motives of the famous game.Tiny ask questions that provoke him to answer "yes" or "no", which is pronounced prohibited.

Methods Dembo-Rubinstein.

  • Check: self-esteem baby.
  • essence of the method.On a painted ladder baby draws his friends.Top - the best and most positive guys down - those who are different are not the best quality.Then the child must find a place on this ladder, and for themselves.

technique ladder

also mom and dad should answer the questions (about the social adaptation):

  • Can the toddler to walk in a public restroom.
  • Can he cope with laces / lightning, with all the buttons, shoes, dress?
  • Surely you feel out?
  • there enough perseverance?That is how long it can withstand, sitting in one place.

Where to go in case of problems of psychological readiness of the child to school?

on the level of preparedness to the kid's school should pay attention not in August, before the training, but much earlier, in time to correct the deficiencies and to prepare the child as much as possible to a new life and a new load.If parents have found problems regarding the psychological unpreparedness of their child to school, please contact your child psychologist for individual counseling.Specialist confirm / refute parental concerns, tell you what to do next, and perhaps advise to defer their studies for a year.Remember, the development should be harmonious!If you categorically say that the baby is not ready for school, it makes sense to listen.