Each came to being a baby sees the world through hearing, sight and touch.Unfortunately, each crumbs nature favors, and sometimes the child is born with any violations.Kids with visual impairment see the world quite differently, and their education and development has its own characteristics.Proper education of the child is very important for its development, subsequent adaptation in school and later in life.What you need to know about the development of children with vision problems?
content of the article:
- Classification of visual impairment in children
- Features of development of children with visual impairment
- Kindergartens visually impaired
Classification of visual impairment in children
- Easiestknown violations - functional.It cataracts, strabismus, astigmatism, corneal opacity, myopia, and so on. If measures are taken in a timely manner, there is a chance to correct the condition.
- Violations relating to the structure of the eye and other parts of the visual system, calledorganic. reason are violations and eye abnormalities, diseases of the retina, optic nerve, and so forth.
Unfortunately, the diagnosis of visual impairment in many children are identified and other violations - cerebral palsy, hearing loss, mental retardation and others.
Visual impairment in children are divided into three types :
- Strabismus and Amblyopia (visual acuity less than 0.3).
- visually impaired child (0.05-0.2 visual acuity on the best seeing eye, with correction).
- blind child (0.01-0.04 visual acuity on the best seeing eye).
As for the causes of disturbances in vision , they are divided into
- purchased (eg due to injury),
- congenital ,
- hereditary .
Features of training and development of children with visual impairment
As you know, kids with visual impairments, with the world acquainted through touch and hearing , to a greater extent.As a result, their view of the world is shaped differently than seeing children.The quality and structure as other sensory images.For example, bird or transport children learn the sounds, rather than their external features.Therefore, one of the main points in the education of children with such problems - focus on different sounds .The participation of specialists in the life of these children - a mandatory part of their training for a normal development.
What are the characteristics of teaching children with vision problems?
- reduced vision not only affects the learning process of the surrounding world, but also on language development, the child's imagination and his memory .Children with visual impairment are often unable to correctly understand the words, given the weak ratio of words with real objects.Therefore, without the help of a speech therapist to do it is difficult.
- Physical activity - an important component of treatment and development.Namely, mobile games, which are necessary for the stimulation of view, strengthening muscles, development of motor coordination, learning necessary skills.Of course, only with the advice and diagnosis ophthalmologist baby, avoid the reverse effect.
- compulsory education proper orientation in space by performing certain tasks / exercises.
- When teaching the child any action, it is repeated many times up until his execution will not come to automatism.Accompanied by learning words, and comments for a pipsqueak understand - what he was doing and why.
- As for the toys - they must be large size and bright certainly (not poisonous bright).It is advisable not to forget about the musical toys and those that are designed to stimulate tactile sensations.
- Within the family parents should be involved in the implementation of the child responsibilities at home .Limit the child's communication with children who do not have vision problems should not be.
Kindergartens with visual impairment - an excellent option for the upbringing and education of visually impaired children
in education, both in school and in pre-school, all the children in need.And kids with visual impairments - in special education .Of course, if the violation is not too severe, the child can be taught in a conventional garden (school), as a rule - using glasses or contact lenses for vision correction.In order to avoid various unpleasant situations, the other children need to be aware of the peculiarities of the health of visually impaired children.
Why is it better to send their children to a specialized kindergarten?
- learning and development of children in these gardens comes taking into account features of the disease .
- specialized in garden child receives all what he needed for the normal development (not only knowledge, but also the appropriate treatment).
- Groups such gardens less than usual - about 8-15 people.That is, attention is paid to children more.
- for teaching children in the gardens used special equipment and techniques .
- In the group of visually impaired children no one will tease the child - that is, the self-esteem of the child will not fall.Read: What to do if a child being bullied at school.
addition to specialized gardens, there are also special children's centers vision correction .With their help, parents will be easier to cope with the problems of education and development of visually impaired children.