term "prematurity" is used when the baby is born before the 37th week of pregnancy, and its weight is less than 2.5 kg.Weighing less than 1.5 kg is considered very preterm newborn.And it weighs less than a kilogram - the fruit.
What are the signs of prematurity and how to care for the crumbs , born prematurely?
content of the article:
- Signs of a premature baby
- Degrees preterm infants
- Pathology premature
- nursing of premature children
Preterm infants: symptoms of a premature baby
addition to weight, premature babies haveand other typical signs of premature birth.
- short. It will be the smaller, the higher the degree of prematurity.
- virtual absence of subcutaneous layer (in very preterm).
- decreased muscle tone.
- Underdeveloped sucking reflex.
- disproportion body : low position of the navel, shorter legs, large sprawled belly, big head (1/3 in relation to height).
- Outdoor small fontanelle, and often, the difference of the cranial sutures.
- Soft, easily wrinkled ears.
- Abundant vellus hair , expressed not only on the back / shoulders, but on the forehead, hips, cheeks.
- Underdeveloped nails (not reaching to the fingertips).
affect the maturity of the baby many factors .Every body is different, and focus only on the birth weight, of course, impossible.
Key criteria that defines the status and characteristics of a premature crumbs - it condition, the degree of prematurity and weight of the baby at birth and nature of birth, cause of preterm birth and the presence of pathologies during pregnancy.
Degrees of preterm infants, height and weight in newborns
crumbs Weight depends on the duration of pregnancy, on what basis and classified degree of prematurity baby:
- at birth in 35-37 weeks and body weight equal to 2001-2500 g - 1st degree .
- at birth in 32-34 weeks and body weight equal to 1501-2000 g - 2nd degree .
- at birth in 29-31 weeks and body weight equal to 1001-1500 g - 3rd degree .
- at birth for less than 29 weeks and body weight of less than 1000 g - 4th degree .
stage of nursing preterm infants, preterm infants pathology
- Resuscitation. first stage, in which the kids are placed in the incubator ("incubator" with the ventilator) in the absence of the possibility to breathe on their own immaturity and important body systems.If there is no sucking reflex, and then gives the baby milk through a special tube.Control of respiration, pulse and temperature required.
- Intensive Care . If possible, breathe on their own baby is transferred to incubator, where they continue to maintain its body temperature and carry out an additional supply of oxygen.
- Follow-up monitoring . expert supervision until complete normalization of all vital body functions and to detect deviations from their subsequent correction.
duration and difficulty nursing are directly dependent on the degree of prematurity .But the main problem is not the shortage of weight and underdevelopment of important systems and organs crumbs.That is, that the baby was born earlier than the time to ripen for life outside the womb.
That is why the task of doctors - a comprehensive survey for the presence of abnormalities that develop on the background of the imperfections of protective forces, a busy period of adaptation and acute reactions to adverse effects.
Possible pathology premature babies:
- impossibility of spontaneous breathing.
- lack of sucking reflex, poor swallowing food.
- long formation of reflexes, which are responsible for the regulation of muscle tone (at a later age - an incorrect pronunciation of sounds, delaying the first coherent speech and so forth.).
- poor circulation, hypoxia, the risk of cerebral palsy.
- increased intracranial pressure.
- developmental delay and motor disorders.
- Hip Dysplasia.
- immaturity of the respiratory system, hypoplasia of the pulmonary tissue.
- development of rickets and anemia.
- susceptibility to colds, otitis media, infectious diseases.
- hearing and vision (retinopathy), and so forth.
Nursing premature babies: feeding, treatment of preterm infants
Key rule nursing babies , born prematurely, are reduced to the following points:
- Creating a comfortable environment : calm, proper feeding and drinking, gentle examination and treatment, humidity and so forth.
- Strict maintaining the desired temperature in the room (24-26 oz.) and incubator (with the weight1000 g - 34,5-35 c., with a weight of 1500-1700 g - 33-34 oz.).Kid still not able to warm himself, so even dressing occurs in incubators.
- supplemental oxygen (increased concentration of oxygen).
- correct position of the baby in the incubator , if necessary - use a cotton donut, regular change of position.
Feeding premature - a separate part of the program of nursing:
- immature kids (in severe condition) shown parenteral nutrition (intravenously and through a tube), in the presence of sucking reflex in the absence of serious pathologies -bottle fed, with the active sucking and weight 1800-2000 g - applied to the chest (for individual indications).
- enough fluids - a must for every premature crumbs.Commonly used Ringer solution, mixed 1: 1 with a 5 percent solution of glucose.
- additional input vitamins : during the first 2-3 days - menadione (vitamin K), riboflavin and thiamine, ascorbic acid, vitamin E. The remaining vitamins are appointed on the grounds.
- In the absence of mother's milk, with 2 weeks of premature babies may appoint food blends with high levels of protein and energy value .
very premature crumbs requires special treatment, which depends on the individual health problems.