frontal muscle is vertically beneath the skin of the forehead, next to his pair.At the top it is almost still originate from the cranial aponeurosis (tendon plate-shaped head - 'tendon helmet "," clothes "on top of the head and goes back to the neck, sides - in the ear.
Action . When cutting simultaneously from both sides,muscles do not budge aponeurosis, but easy to raise eyebrows, forming on his forehead a number of horizontal wrinkles. Action frontal muscles combined with the opening of the eye slit - expression of the eyes, a little or a wide-open, combined with raised eyebrows and wrinkled forehead, which together gives an expression of attention, surprise, fear. Let us examine these changes, starting from standstill.
Peace . The forehead is smooth, eyebrows lowered, edge of the upper eyelid is at the upper edge of the pupil.
expression attention . Frontal muscles reduced slightly, his eyebrows slightly raised,light wrinkles on the forehead, eyes opened a lit
expression of surprise .The frontal muscle is cut harder, eyebrows raised above, wrinkles on the forehead sharper eyes opened wider, the edge of the upper eyelid at the edge of the iris.
expression of fear, horror, fear .The frontal muscle is reduced greatly - his eyebrows raised high, and his forehead all wrinkled and tense.Very wide-eyed ("bulging"), upper eyelid raised over the edge of the iris, making it the top surrounded by a tunica.This expression is taken to the extreme, it gives an expression of insane terror.
pyramidal muscle (muscle is the proud)
lies next to his pair between the eyebrows.Below the muscle is attached to the nasal bone, the top - to the skin on the inner end of the eyebrows.
Action .Normally, the muscles - right and left - are working at the same time, pull down the skin between the eyebrows, forming a mainly vertical folds and bringing together the inner ends of the eyebrows down - omit the inner ends of the eyebrows.Give the face expression of anger and threats.Sometimes pyramidal muscle is an antagonist of the frontal muscle, as opposed to dropping her forehead skin.The interaction of these muscles is shown as follows: on one side of the muscle is strained attention, raised an eyebrow, forehead wrinkles and folds lie on the other side of the eyebrow, on the contrary, drawn down as a result of the work of the pyramidal muscle - the person becomes an expression of contempt, arrogant attention.
Muscle wrinkled brow (muscle pain)
Both glabellar muscles start to stretch the left and right under the skin and eyebrows attached to the skin in the middle of them.
Action .Muscle pulls the inner end of the eyebrows upwards and inwards so that the inner ends of the eyebrows converge upwards;often his eyebrows bend angle.At the same time the skin forms large folds parallel to and above the eyebrows, and small folds perpendicular to move muscles that arm as if strung on at least reduce.
most characteristic action of this muscle - the rise of the inner ends of the eyebrows, which it was sharply different from the pyramidal muscle, which lowers the inner ends of the eyebrows.Muscle expresses painful memories, pain or sorrow, resentment.
circular muscle of the eye
circular muscle of the eye is located in front of her eye socket bone edges, around the eyes and on the eyelids.It consists of two parts: a century and ophthalmic.
age-old part of the muscles of the eyelids is very thin.Its fibers are concentric arcs facing upward bulge on the upper eyelid and bulge down - on the bottom.The age-old part of yourself can be reduced;With the reduction of the muscle fibers are straightened and pull together the lid margin - the eyes are closed;This effect occurs without appreciable force, for example, when a person falls asleep.
The orbital part of the muscle - the one that is around a century.It also consists of concentric muscle fibers, which, beginning in the inner corner of the eye socket, surrounded by centuries-old piece and attach the same place start.
Action .Cutting separately outside presses for ever bringing them closer.If forever is not closed, it turns squinting.While reducing the entire circular muscles of the eyelids are closed, orbital part, cutting, pressing for ever, they force pressed against each other - get zazhmurivanie.At the same time there are going radii wrinkles, especially noticeable on the outer corner of the eye.
upper half of the orbital can be reduced separately, without a sharp effort.She straightens her eyebrows and reducing them slightly down over the eyes, giving the face an expression of concentrated meditation, reflection.This part of the muscle is called muscle meditation (not to be confused with the expression that causes muscle proud!).At the same time, acting on a brow in the opposite direction, this muscle is an antagonist of the forehead - it stretches the skin of the forehead, smooths wrinkles, introducing an element of calm required for in-depth reflection.This reduces muscle involuntarily, in a moment of quiet reflection.When trying to just arbitrarily cut it while working with a mirror over his own face, it is not usually reduced, and muscle proud.
risorius - zygomaticus
starts from the zygomatic bone, extends downwardly and inwardly and attached to the corner of the mouth, passing through the lower end of the nasolabial folds (skin fold that runs from the wings of the nose on both sides to the corners of the mouth, especiallynoticeable when laughing and crying).
Action .Muscles of the right and left cut usually simultaneously.With a slight reduction of the corners of the mouth are raised, the lower ends of the nasolabial folds slightly bent - a smile.When muscles contract more laughter, corners of the mouth are raised above the bottom portion of nasolabial folds is bent convex to the outer side (fold acquires an S-shape).With strong laughter cheeks, tightened up the voltage of the zygomatic muscles, under pressure from below on the lower eyelids, which are rising, partially cover the bottom iris, which gives the fun-loving eyes, a sly expression.When the laughter often works the muscle of attention - laughing carefully scrutinizes the phenomenon, its causes laughter - this upper eyelid and an eyebrow raised, and form on the forehead creases and wrinkles.If it is observed even surprise or admiration - his eyebrows and upper eyelids are raised even higher and lower eyelid still covers the bottom of the eye.When you smile and laugh mouth open or even stretched, so teeth become visible.
square muscle of upper lip - the muscle tears
starts from the lower edge of the orbit, its fibers go down through nosogub-ing and pleated woven into the middle of the upper lip;of the internal fibers woven into the wing of the nose.
Action .Poor muscle contraction raises the middle of the upper lip, bends the NLF bulge outwards and upwards and gently expands the nostril (tearful expression).
With strong muscle contraction (while crying) rises above the upper lip and nasolabial fold strongly pulled up, the upper end of it is wrapped down to the nose.The wing of the nose runs up, nostrils greatly expanded;from the inner corner of the eye outward stretch wrinkles, which are rolling tears.Special reduction of internal beams slightly expands the nostrils (the man sniffs a little).
Nasal muscles have a common tendon, which lies on the back of the nose, like a saddle.The muscles on both sides come down and woven into the skin side of the nose).
Action .When cutting, the two muscles form the longitudinal folds of the skin of the nose and raised his wings (stretching up the nostrils), "wrinkle your nose."Muscle contraction may be one-sided.This action occurs as if an unpleasant smell, and for any discomfort: otherwise sight, cutting sound, sharp cold, burns, and expresses its utmost resentment, especially in combination with the actions of other muscles - pyramidal, wrinkling his eyebrows, and the muscles of disgust.
muscle, lowers nasal septum
lies next to his pair, starting from the porous bone of the upper jaw of the middle incisor, pulled up and woven into the septum of the nose.
Action .It pulls down the septum of the nose and down the middle of the upper lip, contributing urging lips.
orbicularis oris muscle
unpaired muscle occurs in the skin around the opening of the mouth in the form of concentric fibers.It consists of two parts - internal and external.The inside of the mouth and lies surrounded by a border of pink lips and a number;the outer portion surrounds the inner.
Action .When separate reducing the inside of the mouth is narrowed, or both for the whistle to pronounce the letters "y", "w".The outer part, cutting separately compresses the area around the opening of the mouth and lips pushes forward ("pull the lips", "inflating the lips").While reducing both sides of his lips tightly compressed (aided by contraction of the muscle, lowers the nasal septum, which rapidly lowers his upper lip, and the reduction of submental muscles, lifting the lower lip), and may even be wrapped inside ("urging the lips", it occurs when you need to hold back,hide, suppress its internal state or express contempt).
triangular muscle of the mouth - muscle contempt
Its wide base starts from the side surface of the lower jaw, narrow end rises up and woven into the corner of the mouth.
Action .Reducing, pulls down the corner of his mouth and nasolabial fold.At the end of a strong reduction of the nasolabial fold wraps down and forward - gives an expression of contempt.
square muscle of the lower lip - a muscle disgust
starts from the side surface of the chin (inward from the previous one), rises up and woven into the lower lip.
Action .He wrenched his lower lip, pulling it down, giving the face an expression of disgust.Thus the right and left lower lip muscles pull in different directions, stretching it.
begins on the front surface of the lower jaw at the base of the front teeth, goes down and woven into the skin of the chin.
Action .The left and right muscles at the same time cutting, pulling up the skin of the chin with fat pad enclosed in it (it is separated from the lower lip chin-labial groove).If the square muscle of the lower lip does not work, chin muscle lifts up his lower lip.Raised lower lip gives the face an expression of arrogance, arrogance;If the corners of the mouth muscles omitted contempt expression of arrogance increases.
most common chin muscle contracts, together with the square of the lower lip muscle - muscle disgust.This leather chin lifted up and turned inside to meet her lower lip (limiting expression of disgust), why chin-labial groove greatly deepened.
described above, "urging the lips", produced by the voltage of the circular muscles of the mouth, it may be enhanced up to a limit muscle tension, lowers the nasal septum, which pulls down with the force of the upper lip and chin muscles with the lifting force towards the upper lip.Area mouth expresses the maximum tension, indicating a need to restrain, suppress spiritual movement: anger, pain, fear.
buccal or lanitnaya, muscle
It forms the basis of the cheek muscle.It starts behind the tendon cord (extends vertically from the sphenoid bone to the lower jaw), the top and bottom comes from the upper and lower jaws, and in front is woven into the orbicularis oris muscle.The muscle closes the side of the mouth.
Action .During the meal, when food enters between the cheek and teeth, muscle straining, carries food to the teeth.If you inflate the cheeks, the muscles first stretched and then, straining, push the air out of his mouth (the second of its name - "muscle blowers").If they are in good shape, then gently pulled the corners of his mouth, each to his own.When unilateral reduction of muscle can greatly delay the mouth in its side, skew it.
between the cheek muscle and skin is body fat cheeks.In women, body fat more than men;it is especially developed among infants.
Actually masseter comes from the zygomatic arch, down and slightly back and is attached to the corner of the lower jaw.
Action .Raises the lower jaw and pushes it to the top, closing the mouth.Relief muscle becomes noticeable when chewing and chewing muscles tense when further when the mouth is closed (the person "clenches the jaw").This voltage is accompanied by strong physical stresses and appears when you need to show restraint: move physical pain, in trouble or unhappiness.Voltage masticatory muscles also accompanies anger, ready to attack or quarrel, and appears on the face, together with muscle tension threat of contempt or disgust.The masseter is also a facial - it gives an expression of determination, threat.
lies in the temporal cavity (from her and starts).It has a fan shape: wide at the top, passes down the narrow tendon extending between the wall of the skull and zygomatic arch and fixed to the coronoid process of the mandible.
Action .Same as that of the chewing muscles.Malorelefna temporal muscle.When a person loses weight, the muscle becomes more flat and contrast vividly with her acts temporal line and zygomatic arch, making the temporal fossa becomes significant (respectively, the expression "sunken temples"), then the temporal muscle becomes mimic value.
pterygoid muscles lie deep, move the lower jaw forward and to the sides;with the articular processes out of the pits and the joint face extends or skewed (at the bottom).
Job pterygoid muscles combined with the work of the temporal and the actual masticatory muscles and muscles, lowering the lower jaw;when chewing is not only the lower jaw drops and rises, and moves back and forth and left and right.Less
are reducing pterygoid muscles under the influence of emotional experiences;In such cases, the muscles of the jaw and push forward (combined with the expression of threats), or jaw droops or is shifted to the side (with a look of bewilderment or pain).In these cases, the wing muscles play a role mimic ("face fell", "face twisted").
Remember that the study of individual facial muscles - is the study of the alphabet facial expressions.Although a separate reduction of one of the muscles can give an expression corresponding to its name, facial expression rarely as a result of a muscle;usually works several muscles.The first thing that needs to be done to avoid or eliminate various acquired defects appearance - stand in front of the mirror and start to "make faces".Firstly, it is useful for a detailed acquaintance with the muscles of his face - alone, in suspense, in action.Second, you will learn how to direct the attention of muscle - so-called "muscle controller" - the individual muscles and muscle groups of the face.Third, you can get rid of unwanted facial habits, excessive stress facial muscles.