hemoglobin - a protein that is found in red blood cells (erythrocytes).It carries oxygen to the body's cells and picks up carbon dioxide from them.What is the rate of hemoglobin in women?
What is a normal hemoglobin level
hemoglobin level is measured in grams per deciliter, which is equal to one hundred milliliters deciliter.The normal level of hemoglobin depends on the age and in adults - from the floor.The rate of hemoglobin levels for women - from 12 to 16 g / dl and in women older than middle age - from 11.7 to 13.8 g / dL.These figures may vary slightly in different laboratories.Some laboratories do not distinguish between normal levels of hemoglobin in adults and in people older than middle age.
Norma hemoglobin in pregnant women - 11-12 g / dl.During pregnancy, it is recommended to avoid both high and low hemoglobin levels, to avoid the risk of stillbirth (at elevated hemoglobin) and premature birth Premature birth - Recognize the signals of the body in time or having a baby with low birth weight (low hemoglobin).
Critical hemoglobin levels:
- hemoglobin level of less than 5 g / dl can lead to heart failure.
- hemoglobin level above 20 g / dl causes blockage of the capillaries due to hemoconcentration.
What does a low hemoglobin level
low hemoglobin level is called anemia.The number of red blood cells, which is below the norm, this anemia and hemoglobin levels reflect this amount.There are many causes of anemia.Some of the most common include:
- blood loss (due to injury, surgery, bleeding colon cancer or stomach ulcers);
- nutritional deficiencies (iron, vitamin Vitamins for everyone B12, folate);
- bone marrow problems (e.g., due to cancer);
- suppression of hematopoiesis because of drugs for chemotherapy;
- renal failure;
- abnormal structure of the hemoglobin (sickle-cell anemia or thalassemia).
loss of blood and bone marrow suppression reduces the overall level of red blood cells and thus reduces the overall level of hemoglobin.The hemoglobin level is also reduced in patients with an abnormal type of hemoglobin.Red blood cells with abnormal hemoglobin types are often fragile and easily damaged in the vascular system.
thalassemia - an inherited recessive haemoglobinopathies.It occurs due to the inability to produce a sufficient amount of globin molecules.Pregnancy in women with thalassemia can occur with or without complications, depending on the severity of the disease form.
When sickle hemoglobin is abnormal form known as sickle hemoglobin.Sickle hemoglobin of red blood cells creates irregular shape that clog blood vessels.In pregnancy, sickle cell anemia can cause miscarriage Abortion - is more common than you think or premature birth and may develop severe anemia.Pregnancy must occur under the careful supervision of a doctor.
When iron deficiency anemia red blood cell count is normal but the hemoglobin level is low.In general, women should get more iron from the diet than men, because of the regular loss of iron during menstruation.During pregnancy the need for iron is increased to produce more hemoglobin.If a woman becomes pregnant when iron stores in the body are small, it is at risk of severe anemia.Regular tests for hemoglobin - an important part of monitoring of pregnant women.During the third trimester of pregnancy develops "physiological anemia of pregnant women."This is a normal drop in hemoglobin level is due to the increase in plasma volume.
Pregnant women with iron deficiency anemia should receive daily one-two hundred milligrams of iron, at least three months to replenish iron stores.They should also be given advice on the optimal absorption of iron by the body.
What is the highest level of hemoglobin
Elevated levels of hemoglobin occurs in all states where the number of red blood cells in the blood exceeds the norm.Examples of such conditions associated with increasing levels of hemoglobin are polycythemia vera, severe burns, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic heart failure.
hemoglobin level in excess of the norm in people living at high altitudes, and smokers.
Dehydration gives false high result in the measurement of the hemoglobin level, which returns to normal when recovering the balance of body fluids.
Some rare causes high hemoglobin levels are:
- severe lung disease (such as emphysema);
- some tumors;
- violation of the bone marrow, known as polycythemia vera;
- overdose of the drug erythropoietin (Epogen) athletes for the purpose of doping (increases the amount of oxygen in the body by increasing the production of chemical erythrocytes).
Norma glycated hemoglobin in women
glycosylated hemoglobin - hemoglobin is coupled with glucose.Glycosylated hemoglobin check, to control blood sugar levels over a long period of diabetes.Glikemirovannogo hemoglobin level is determined as a percentage of total blood hemoglobin.Because women total hemoglobin lower than men, and glikemirovannogo hemoglobin value will be lower.
level of glycated hemoglobin increases in red blood cells in a person who is poorly controlled blood sugar levels in diabetes.Since glucose is connected to hemoglobin for the life of red blood cells (usually about four months), the level of glycated hemoglobin reflects the average blood glucose over the past three months.
normal glycated hemoglobin levels - less than 7%.
Diabetics rarely achieve such levels, but tight control aims to come close to this value.The level of less than 9% points to poor control, and levels above 12% indicates a very poor control.It is usually recommended to measure the level of glycated hemoglobin in diabetes every three to six months.
Studies show that diabetics who support the level of glycated hemoglobin close to 7%, have a much higher chance to avoid or delay complications associated with diabetes that affect the eyes, kidneys and nerves than people with a level of 8% or higher.If the level is below 8%, almost always required changes in treatment.Any reduction in glycated hemoglobin improves the chances of a man on it to stay healthy.Glycosylated hemoglobin, also known as glycohemoglobin and hemoglobin A1C.