There are diseases that are passed from generation to generation and often manifest themselves from the birth.Therefore, these diseases are called - hereditary.The most well-known hereditary diseases can be attributed to hemophilia, phenylketonuria, Down syndrome, and others.The development of genetic diseases caused by mutations in human genes.These mutations may occur among chromosomes and at a deeper level - in the genes.
Each child is always transferred two genes, one from dad and one from mum.All human genes by the nature of its manifestation is divided into dominant and recessive.The first of these inhibit the second because they get their name.If both genes will be "patient", the child inherits disease uniquely, irrespective of how it is transmitted genome: dominant or recessive.If a hereditary disease suffered only one parent, the child's risk of disease can vary in a very wide range - from zero to one hundred per cent: it all depends on the dominance of the abnormal gene, as well as a s
study of hereditary diseases has been a specific medical science - genetics.The specialists, geneticists have a major challenge, not only to study genetic diseases and cure the patient, but also as far as possible to prevent any likelihood of this disease.At the present stage, we can heal any person, or to reduce the symptoms of hereditary disease, but to eliminate the cause of the disease, ie the chromosomal or gene mutation, it is not yet possible.
Currently, if there is a hereditary predisposition to abnormalities in the couple planning a child necessarily directed to genetic counseling.Who is the most common method of preventing genetic diseases.Physician-geneticist examines in detail the history of the whole family of diseases is genealogy, and then recommends that couples undergo appropriate testing to determine the presence of chromosomal mutations.After a detailed analysis of all the collected material the doctor gives his recommendations: how to prepare for pregnancy, what you can and can not be a pregnant woman, what research and how often you should take.For example, one method of genetic analysis is amniocentesis.This method allows you to analyze embryo cells from the amniotic fluid, amniotic fluid - how important they are to the health of women and children? , so you can know in advance whether a child will be born healthy.
However, it is important to know that the environment also has some influence on the risk of hereditary diseases.Therefore, the expectant mother is necessary to ensure clean air, water and good quality products.Naturally, the risk of having a baby with a genetic abnormality increases parental smoking, and alcohol and drug use.
It's no secret that we are facing every day with various chemical products: organic ingredients used in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and other areas of economic activity.Among this diversity often found, and those compounds which are capable of causing mutations.
Sometimes hereditary diseases confused with birth using these terms interchangeably.But the pathology that occurs at birth, is not always hereditary.It can be caused by any effects on the fetus, including infectious agents or reception dangerous for the fetus of drugs.
separately identifiable disease with genetic predisposition.Among the most famous diabetes mellitus , atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis - when the problems with the vessels , obesity, asthma, some forms of cancer, allergic diseases.In the manifestation of these diseases affect not only the 'bad' chromosome set and environment, but also some other factors: lifestyle, diet, nervous-emotional state and another.