Candles are often the interior decoration are applied in everyday life, treating, magic and all the candles you can easily buy.But you can learn how to do them yourself.Masters candle business secrets shared.
candles from honeycombs.
candles to look beautiful, you need to take a light-yellow honeycombs.Selecting sheets honeycomb look to them there was no pollution, cracked or otherwise candle will burn unevenly.From
honeycomb sheet can twist the candle height of 26 cm and a diameter of 2.5-3 cm. If the source material is very thin, then the candle quickly warped and lose their shape.If Wax is too thick, it is difficult to twist.
work best in the kitchen.Wax For safety reasons it is necessary to melt in a water bath.This will require two tanks - one for the wax (a very practical use for this jug with a spout), the other (large pan) - for the water bath.Wax should be enameled cookware, so that when heated, it did not become gray.In addition, you'll need a pair of scissors or a sharp knife and board
Curl candles from honeycombs not require any tools.It is enough to have a clean countertop near the oven or plate, a knife with a smooth blade, drawing a long line and lining cutting.
When casting wax candles from the table must be covered with cardboard or old cloth or aluminum foil, cook grease brush wand for fixing the wick and various molds.
when working with melted wax follow simple safety rules: flammable liquid wax at 180 ° C, so the container can not put it directly on the plate;make sure that not a drop of wax fell on her;it is necessary only to melt the wax on a steam bath, as the water temperature never exceeds 100 ° C;Take care of your eyes;does not extinguish the burning wax water, and use a damp cloth;workplace occasionally ventilate because prolonged inhalation of wax fumes may cause headaches;Do not allow children to working with hot wax.
If the drops of wax fall on the cloth, they can bring hot iron by placing it on a clean sheet of white paper.If they were on a table or floor, they are removed with a cloth soaked in hot water.
central element of the candle - wick, its weave of thin cotton threads.Wicks are round and flat section.Round wicks have a better water absorption, so I prefer them.The thickness of the wick is selected depending on the diameter of the candle, but no specific recommendations can only give approximate matching these parameters.
For thin Christmas candles should be used very thin wick.Candles, turn of honeycombs, usually require thinner wick than the cast.
When making candles from honeycombs can offer the following ratio of diameters and wick candles: candles with a diameter up to 30 mm shall have a wick with a diameter of 2 mm;45 - 4 mm;over 45 - 6-8 mm;above 60 - 10 mm.
tip of the wick burning candles should be as short as possible - it extends its combustion.Therefore, it is constantly lit candle pruned.
Candles of wax.
Before pouring the wax mold should be heated, and their cooling should be slow, for this they wrapped a towel.
Before installing wick in the form of its inner surface do not forget to lubricate the material, which will provide separation of wax from the walls.For example, a dishwashing liquid.In this liquid mixture with warm water and immersed shape.Pulling out, make sure there are no bubbles on the surface and wipe it with a damp cloth, but do not dry up.Use vegetable oil is not recommended because it leaves on the surface layer of stubborn fat.However, if the form of wood, it can be oiled.In this case, the wax impregnated wick optionally its upper end can be processed after casting.It is important that the wick was located exactly in the middle and form would be tight.If the shape of the bottom (e.g., cans), then it is necessary to make a hole and passed through a wick tying outside node.On the top edge of the form, place, such as a pencil to it and with a tension tie the other end of the wick.If the bottom of the form is impossible to make a hole, then glued to the bottom of the wick.If no bottom shape, it is bonded with wax to the plastic surface (such as a chopping board) so that the bottom there are no gaps.Do not forget to grease the bottom of the form.The wick is also glued to the bottom, and the top fixed.
wax melts at a temperature of 64 ° C.Pouring it into molds is best at 80 ° C in one step to prevent the formation of seams.Scoop is used only when working with small forms.After pouring the wax cools from the outer surface to the center.At this time, the wick around a hole to be filled with wax before it hardens.When casting thick candles of wax cools it must pierce the needle several times along the length of the wick in order to avoid the formation of air bubbles.The wax should cool off slowly, otherwise the plug can crack.
Thin candles from a collapsible form can be carefully removed when the wax hardens half.Using a heated knife to cut the workpiece surface excrescences formed at the joint shape.Then put the candle on the table for further cooling.This should avoid sharp fluctuations in temperature and vibrations.The form is cleaned of wax and washed with dishwashing liquid.If you are using a form of not folding, it is necessary to wait for complete cooling and solidification of wax on it sometimes takes a whole day.Since the wax gives a small shrinkage, the chilled ready-made candle wick is pulled over, do not forget to untie the knot at the bottom.If the spark plug can not be removed, it is possible to gently knock on the table form.If this does not help, it briefly dipped in hot water.From the shape of the bottom of a candle without the pull easier to use that knife or squeeze it in any subject.
There is also a method of making candles using multiple dipping the wick into the wax candles and a gradual build-up.This method is the oldest.In this case, the dishes need to take to melt high and narrow, it will provide long candles.But the capacity should not fill to the brim with wax, and water in a second pan should not boil.The job requires patience.The wick is tied to a stick and repeatedly dipped in melted wax.Dipping should be short in order to avoid melting of the previous build-up.Then the workpiece is kept in the air to harden the wax each new layer.Thus, there is a gradual increase in candles.
To make tallow candles harder recommended dipping candles sequentially in the following three mixtures:
1) Melt the white resin 4, 88 good fat, camphor 6, 20, stearic acid 2 dammar.
2) 48 Melt fat, 6 camphor, stearic acid 20 4 white gum, dammar resin 10.
3) Melt 20 stearic acid, 4 white wax, 10 fat, 6 camphor.
candles from fat.
1) Dissolve 450 g alum and 450 g of nitrate in 2 liters of water to simmer.Added 5400 g of fat, constantly interfering until all the fat is dissolved.Do not leave too long on the fire, as the oil may darken.
2) Cut 8 kg of fat into small pieces, put into a pot together with 250 g alum and 250 g of ammonium nitrate, predissolved in 0.5 of water at low heat.Constantly stir over low heat until all the fat is dissolved.Leave on the fading heat until steam no longer rise, then remove from heat.
Glycerin suppositories for Laroche.Dissolve 5
colorless gelatin in 20 water is added and heated to 26 glycerol until until a completely clear solution.To this solution was added 2 tannin dissolved by heating to 10 glycerol.Turbidity appears, which disappears with further boiling.Boil continues until, until all the water has evaporated.Candles made from this composition, clear as water, and burn easily, without spreading any smell.
Glycerine candles conventional
They are made as follows: mixed by heating 5 g of gelatin, 25 ml of glycerol and 20 ml of water until a clear solution, then add 2 g of tannin dissolved beforehand in 10 ml of glycerol by heating.The resulting solution was heated to reflux;first appeared haze fades.The solution was heated up until all the water has evaporated.Then, from the resulting mass is molded candles.Glycerin suppositories are transparent as glass, burning quietly and without smoke, without spreading any smell.
candles are used for coloring the following dyes:
a) blue: Prussian blue, ultramarine, copper sulfate, aniline blue.
b) red: carmine, Alcala root aniline red.
c) Yellow: chrome yellow, yellow naphthalene (aniline).
d) Green: a mixture of blue and yellow colors.When stained with aniline dyes should take the paint, soluble in fats.
The material from which the candles are prepared (wax, fat or wick) is fed a small amount of a suitable fragrance.For this purpose, the most suitable camphor, benzoin, Peru balsam, kaskarilya, essential oils and the like. D. It must not be too much to add aromatic substances, or suppositories will koptet and give little light.
Wicks for candles.
To better candles burning and fat does not drip, it recommended a number of ways:
a) Dip the wicks in a solution of lime water, to which was added nitrate: 5.5 g of water to take 85 nitrate and 300 g of lime.Dry wicks to use.
b) Prepare a solution of 85 g of borax, 45 g of calcium chloride, 45 g of ammonium nitrate and 45 g of ammonium chloride in 4.5 liters of water and filtered.Soak in this solution wicks, then dried.
c) wick soak for several hours in the cold solution of 1 kg of boric acid in 37 liters of water.
d) Prepare a solution of 4 kg of boric acid, 2.5 kg of sulfuric acid in 370 liters of water.Proceeding as in the previous recipe.
d) A solution of 10 g of ammonium chloride and 10 g of sodium nitrate in 7 liters of water.Wicks soaked in this solution is 10 - 15 minutes at reflux and then dried at 40-50 ° C.
e) Put wicks for 24 hours in a bath consisting of sulfuric acid and of a 100-fold amount by weight of water.Dry at low temperature and put in another bath consisting of 12.5 kg of boric acid, 9 kg of ammonium sulfate and 370 liters of water.Wicks then dried in a warm room.
key recommendations for making candles
• Do not try to go in a simple way in the manufacture of candles for magical purposes.
• Do not use wax on the already burned-out candles and a regular cable instead of a thin candle.In the old wicks made of rolled up cotton fibers, milkweed, timothy stalks or tow.
• Properly made wick is very important to the candle was burning evenly.
• The thickness of the candle depends on the number of threads, of which it is made
•.For candles with a diameter of 1-3 inches is needed wick of 15 threads.Candle diameter of 4 inches - 24 strands of the wick and candle diameter larger than 4 inches - 30 strands.
• Currently, in most cases, instead of a mixture of paraffin wax and stearin or stearic acid.
• Church candles contain 48 percent wax and 52 percent beeswax, and usual - 70 percent wax, 20 percent stearic acid and 10 percent beeswax (90 percent or 10 percent paraffin and stearic acid).Of course, it is better if you can find a wax that is used for making church candles.
• The best way to melt the wax in a double boiler or in an electric furnace (Never use glassware).Most types of wax melted at a temperature of 29-111 ° C (temperature of boiling water - 100 ° Celsius).
• Beeswax melts at 48-50 ° C.Be especially careful when melting wax over an open fire: it may catch fire.For safety, use a double boiler or electric furnace.If you need to burn wax, extinguish it with baking soda (keep it in an open box on hand), but not water!
• Do not attempt to paint watercolors candles or food dyes.If you decide to get serious about the process of making candles, use powdered paints, aniline dyes, oil-based or natural colorants.Sometimes used for wax crayons, coloring "Tinteks" and "Rit".It is easiest to use crayons to wax, but they have their drawbacks.The main one is that the chemical reaction can occur, resulting in the wick will be destroyed.Other dyes are often stained with the wax evenly.It is best to use dyes, soluble in wax.Look dyes for candles in the shops, where goods are offered for recreation.For coloring candles are perfect powder paint.Do not forget that the majority of dyes for wax brighten when it solidifies, so experiment to find out how much dye should be added.